Leaves can be picked from 4 weeks after planting. [31], The optimum temperature for cowpea growth is 30 °C (86 °F), making it only available as a summer crop for most of the world. [73] In some tradition cropping methods, the yield can be as low as 100 kilograms per hectare (0.045 short ton/acre). the aboveground plant parts of cowpea, … 1993). [45] An individual bruchid can lay 20–40 eggs, and in optimal conditions, each egg can develop into a reproductively active adult in 3 weeks. Speaking further on the GM cowpea, PBR cowpea Programme Manager, Dr Issoufou Kollo commended the farmers making use of the new variety by applying good agronomic practices. [13] From there they traveled north to the Mediterranean, where they were used by the Greeks and Romans. Cowpea Uses. [27] In 2300 BC, the cowpea is believed to have made its way into Southeast Asia, where secondary domestication events may have occurred. [23] A pod can contain six to 13 seeds that are usually kidney-shaped, although the seeds become more spherical the more restricted they are within the pod. The grain provides valuable protein and the leaves are used as a nutritious vegetable. [21] Flower colour varies through different shades of purple, pink, yellow, and white and blue. Niger is the main exporter of cowpeas and Nigeria the main importer. Cowpeas can be erect, semierect (trailing), or climbing. How true is it that cow peas have a drawing salve effect like G&I according to traditional source use. The cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) is an annual herbaceous legume from the genus Vigna. Cowpea production technology 31.10.2018 1. [52], Besides biotic stresses, cowpea also faces various challenges in different parts of the world such as drought, heat, and cold. The seeds can be harvested after about 100 days or the whole plant used as forage after about 120 days. [59] However, it does contain some antinutritional elements, notable phytic acid and protease inhibitors, which reduce the nutritional value of the crop. It requires very few inputs, as the plant's root nodules are able to fix atmospheric nitrogen, making it a valuable crop for resource-poor farmers and well-suited to intercroppingwith other crops. In contrary to other leafy vegetables, cowpeas requires less maintenance. Nigeria has reached a major food security milestone with the commercial release of insect-resistant cowpea — its first genetically modified (GM) food crop. [21], Compared to most other important crops, little is known about the domestication, dispersal, and cultivation history of the cowpea. [70], The cowpea has often been referred to as "poor man's meat" due to the high levels of protein found in the seeds and leaves. Cowpea production in Africa. Cowpea is also known as iron beans in Nigeria, and it’s used for various amazing delicacies. But cowpea … [11] All cultivated cowpeas are found within the universally accepted V. unguiculata subspecies unguiculata classification, which is then commonly divided into four cultivar groups: unguiculata, biflora, sesquipedalis, and textilis. [5], M. vitrata causes the most damage to the growing cowpea due to their large host range and cosmopolitan distribution. Taxonomy of Cowpea: Most nomenclature problems in the cultivated cowpeas and related wild species have been resolved to great extent. [32], These characteristics, along with its low fertilisation requirements, make the cowpea an ideal crop for resource-poor farmers living in the Sahel region of West Africa. Cowpea can be used at all stages of growth as a. vegetable crop, and the leaves contain significant. Cowpea can be used as forage, hay, and silage. The weevil develops into a sexually mature adult within the seed. It requires very few inputs, as the plant's root nodules are able to fix atmospheric nitrogen, making it a valuable crop for resource-poor farmers and well-suited to intercropping with other crops. Cowpea grain matures earlier than cereals, hence becomes a quick source of cash before the maize, millets and … It is then left to ferment. (Hasskarl)", "Southern Peas - Gardening Solutions - University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences", "Niebe: A Food of Choice to Combat Hunger", "Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of Cowpea (, "The Potential Role of Neglected and Underutilised Crop Species as Future Crops under Water Scarce Conditions in Sub-Saharan Africa", "Toxicity and repellence of African plants traditionally used for the protection of stored cowpea against Callosobruchus maculatus". The timing of planting is crucial, as the plant must mature during the seasonal rains. [46] The most common methods of protection involve the use of insecticides, the main pesticides used being carbamates, synthetic pyrethoids, and organophosphates. Cow pea is quite high in Iodine. [59] Cowpeas can be prepared in stews, soups, purees, casseroles and curries. Traditional methods of protecting stored grain include using the insecticidal properties of Neem extracts, mixing the grain with ash or sand, using vegetable oils, combining ash and oil into a soap solution or treating the cowpea pods with smoke or heat. Close, Alisa Huffaker, and Eric A. Schmelz: This page was last edited on 6 December 2020, at 10:01. They help improve digestion, aid in sleep disorders, manage diabetes, and protect the heart. The tender leaves and young pods are used for preparing nutritious vegetable dishes. Cowpea silage is made by using cowpea leaves mixed with the green leaves of maize or sorghum and then compacting the green matter, covering it with plastic and weighing it down to make it airtight. [62], Most cowpeas are grown on the African continent, particularly in Nigeria and Niger, which account for 66% of world cowpea production. It grows best in regions with an annual rainfall between 400 and 700 mm (16 and 28 in). If there are several buds left after defoliation, the plant will regenerate. The nutrients present in Cow pea make it an essential Herb in relation to Thyroid. [24] Although there is no archaeological evidence for early cowpea cultivation, the centre of diversity of the cultivated cowpea is West Africa, leading an early consensus that this is the likely centre of origin and place of early domestication. Quickly in hot weather the main importer are sandy and it is known! 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